Python Lessons

A collection of free, in-depth Python lessons for beginners on core topics.

The Python ‘in’ Operator

The Python in operator checks for the inclusion of an item within a collection object. It returns True if the item is included and False otherwise. The in operator is versatile and can be used with many data types such as strings, lists, tuples, dictionaries, and sets.

The Python None Value

In Python, None is a special constant that represents the absence of a value or a null value. It is an object of its own data type, the NoneType, and it is not equivalent to any other value or data type.

The Python ‘is’ Operator

The Python is operator determines whether two references (variables or literals) point to the same object in memory, i.e. whether they are the same object. The is operator is different from the equality operator ==, which checks whether the values of potentially two objects are equal.

Python Type Conversion

Type conversion in Python refers to the process of converting a value from one data type to another. This is a common task when writing code. It allows for more flexibility in how data is processed and ensures that operations between different types of data are error-free. Python performs some type conversions automatically, and also provides several built-in functions to convert between different data types.

Python Booleans

A Boolean is a data type that has either one of two values representing a conceptual "true" or "false". Booleans are named after the mathematician George Boole, who was a pioneer of mathematical logic. In programming, they are used for decision-making, (i.e. to determine whether the computer should do something or not.